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Survival and growth of saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi in recalcitrant amine, amide and ammonium containing media

Stenholm, Ake and Backlund, Anders and Holmström, Sara and Backlund, Maria and Hedeland, Mikael and Fransson, Petra (2021). Survival and growth of saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi in recalcitrant amine, amide and ammonium containing media. PLoS ONE. 16 , e0244910
[Research article]

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Abstract

The elimination of hazardous compounds in chemical wastes can be a complex and technically demanding task. In the search for environmental-friendly technologies, fungal mediated remediation and removal procedures are of concern. In this study, we investigated whether there are fungal species that can survive and grow on solely amine-containing compounds. One compound containing a primary amine group; 2-diethylaminoethanol, one compound with a primary amide group; 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), and a third compound containing a quaternary ammonium group; N-3-trimethyl(2-oxiranyl)methanaminium chloride, were selected. The choice of these compounds was motivated by their excessive use in large scale manufacturing of protein separation media (2-diethylaminoethanol and the quaternary amine). 2,6-dichlorobenzamide, the degradation product of the herbicide 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil), was chosen since it is an extremely recalcitrant compound. Utilising part of the large fungal diversity in Northern European forests, a screening study using 48 fungal isolates from 42 fungal species, including saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi, was performed to test for growth responses to the chosen compounds. The ericoid (ERM) mycorrhizal fungus Rhizoscyphus ericae showed the best overall growth on 2-diethylaminoethanol and BAM in the 1-20 g L-1 concentration range, with a 35-fold and 4.5-fold increase in biomass, respectively. For N-3-trimethyl(2-oxiranyl)methanaminium chloride, the peak growth occurred at 1 g L-1. In a second experiment, including three of the most promising fungi (Laccaria laccata, Hygrophorus camarophyllus and Rhizoscyphus ericae) from the screening experiment, a simulated process water containing 1.9% (w/v) 2-diethylaminoethanol and 0.8% (w/v) N(3-)trimethyl(2-oxiranyl)methanaminium chloride was used. Laccaria laccata showed the best biomass increase (380%) relative to a control, while the accumulation for Rhizoscyphus ericae and Hygrophorus camarophyllus were 292% and 136% respectively, indicating that mycorrhizal fungi can use amine- and amide-containing substrates as nutrients. These results show the potential of certain fungal species to be used in alternative green wastewater treatment procedures.

Authors/Creators:Stenholm, Ake and Backlund, Anders and Holmström, Sara and Backlund, Maria and Hedeland, Mikael and Fransson, Petra
Title:Survival and growth of saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi in recalcitrant amine, amide and ammonium containing media
Series Name/Journal:PLoS ONE
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:16
Article number:e0244910
Number of Pages:21
Publisher:PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
ISSN:1932-6203
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 105 Earth and Related Environmental Sciences > Environmental Sciences (social aspects to be 507)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Microbiology (Microbiology in the medical area to be 30109)
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114224
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114224
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0244910
Web of Science (WoS)000707112500001
ID Code:26016
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(NL, NJ) > Swedish Species Information Centre
(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
(S) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:04 Nov 2021 11:25
Metadata Last Modified:04 Nov 2021 11:31

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