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The Evolutionary History of the Chymase Locus -a Locus Encoding Several of the Major Hematopoietic Serine Proteases

Akula, Srinivas and Fu, Zhirong and Wernersson, Sara and Hellman, Lars (2021). The Evolutionary History of the Chymase Locus -a Locus Encoding Several of the Major Hematopoietic Serine Proteases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 22 , 10975
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Abstract

Several hematopoietic cells of the immune system store large amounts of proteases in cytoplasmic granules. The absolute majority of these proteases belong to the large family of chymotrypsin-related serine proteases. The chymase locus is one of four loci encoding these granule-associated serine proteases in mammals. The chymase locus encodes only four genes in primates, (1) the gene for a mast-cell-specific chymotryptic enzyme, the chymase; (2) a T-cell-expressed asp-ase, granzyme B; (3) a neutrophil-expressed chymotryptic enzyme, cathepsin G; and (4) a T-cell-expressed chymotryptic enzyme named granzyme H. Interestingly, this locus has experienced a number of quite dramatic expansions during mammalian evolution. This is illustrated by the very large number of functional protease genes found in the chymase locus of mice (15 genes) and rats (18 genes). A separate expansion has also occurred in ruminants, where we find a new class of protease genes, the duodenases, which are expressed in the intestinal region. In contrast, the opossum has only two functional genes in this locus, the mast cell (MC) chymase and granzyme B. This low number of genes may be the result of an inversion, which may have hindered unequal crossing over, a mechanism which may have been a major factor in the expansion within the rodent lineage. The chymase locus can be traced back to early tetrapods as genes that cluster with the mammalian genes in phylogenetic trees can be found in frogs, alligators and turtles, but appear to have been lost in birds. We here present the collected data concerning the evolution of this rapidly evolving locus, and how these changes in gene numbers and specificities may have affected the immune functions in the various tetrapod species.

Authors/Creators:Akula, Srinivas and Fu, Zhirong and Wernersson, Sara and Hellman, Lars
Title:The Evolutionary History of the Chymase Locus -a Locus Encoding Several of the Major Hematopoietic Serine Proteases
Series Name/Journal:International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:22
Article number:10975
Number of Pages:26
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:1661-6596
Language:English
Publication Type:Article Review/Survey
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Evolutionary Biology
Keywords:mast cell, tryptase, chymase, serine protease, evolution, granzyme
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114360
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114360
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3390/ijms222010975
Web of Science (WoS)000714469400001
ID Code:26172
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:19 Nov 2021 09:27
Metadata Last Modified:19 Nov 2021 09:31

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