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The 4C Approach as a way to understand species interactions determining intercropping productivity

Justes, Eric and Bedoussac, Laurent and Dordas, Christos and Frak, Ela and Louarn, Gaetan and Boudsocq, Simon and Journet, Etienne-Pascal and Lithourgidis, Anastasios and Pankou, Chrysanthi and Zhang, Chaochun and Carlsson, Georg and Jensen, Erik Steen and Watson, Christine and Li, Long (2021). The 4C Approach as a way to understand species interactions determining intercropping productivity. Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering. 8 , 387-399
[Research article]

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Abstract

Modern agriculture needs to develop transition pathways toward agroecological, resilient and sustainable farming systems. One key pathway for such agroecological intensification is the diversification of cropping systems using intercropping and notably cereal-grain legume mixtures. Such mixtures or intercrops have the potential to increase and stabilize yields and improve cereal grain protein concentration in comparison to sole crops. Species mixtures are complex and the 4C approach is both a pedagogical and scientific way to represent the combination of four joint effects of Competition, Complementarity, Cooperation, and Compensation as processes or effects occurring simultaneously and dynamically between species over the whole cropping cycle. Competition is when plants have fairly similar requirements for abiotic resources in space and time, the result of all processes that occur when one species has a greater ability to use limiting resources (e.g., nutrients, water, space, light) than others. Complementarity is when plants grown together have different requirements for abiotic resources in space, time or form. Cooperation is when the modification of the environment by one species is beneficial to the other(s). Compensation is when the failure of one species is compensated by the other(s) because they differ in their sensitivity to abiotic stress. The 4C approach allows to assess the performance of arable intercropping versus classical sole cropping through understanding the use of abiotic resources.

Authors/Creators:Justes, Eric and Bedoussac, Laurent and Dordas, Christos and Frak, Ela and Louarn, Gaetan and Boudsocq, Simon and Journet, Etienne-Pascal and Lithourgidis, Anastasios and Pankou, Chrysanthi and Zhang, Chaochun and Carlsson, Georg and Jensen, Erik Steen and Watson, Christine and Li, Long
Title:The 4C Approach as a way to understand species interactions determining intercropping productivity
Series Name/Journal:Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:8
Page range:387-399
Number of Pages:13
Associated Programs and Other Stakeholders:Z - SLU - Library > Odla mera
ISSN:2095-7505
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Agricultural Science
Keywords:compensation, competition, complementarity, cooperation, interspecific interactions, land equivalent ratio, light, nutrients, species mixtures, water
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114449
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114449
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.15302/J-FASE-2021414
ID Code:26221
Faculty:LTV - Fakulteten för landskapsarkitektur, trädgårds- och växtproduktionsvetenskap
Department:(LTJ, LTV) > Department of Biosystems and Technology (from 130101)
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:29 Nov 2021 08:26
Metadata Last Modified:30 Nov 2021 05:01

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