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Multiple Mechanisms Drive the Evolutionary Adaptation of Phytophthora infestans Effector Avr1 to Host Resistance

Shen, Lin-Lin and Waheed, Abdul and Wang, Yan-Ping and Nkurikiyimfura, Oswald and Wang, Zong-Hua and Yang, Li-Na and Zhan, Jiasui (2021). Multiple Mechanisms Drive the Evolutionary Adaptation of Phytophthora infestans Effector Avr1 to Host Resistance. Journal of Fungi. 7 :10 , 789
[Research article]

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Abstract

Effectors, a group of small proteins secreted by pathogens, play a central role in antagonistic interactions between plant hosts and pathogens. The evolution of effector genes threatens plant disease management and sustainable food production, but population genetic analyses to understand evolutionary mechanisms of effector genes are limited compared to molecular and functional studies. Here we investigated the evolution of the Avr1 effector gene from 111 Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from six areas covering three potato cropping regions in China using a population genetic approach. High genetic variation of the effector gene resulted from diverse mechanisms including base substitution, pre-termination, intragenic recombination and diversifying selection. Nearly 80% of the 111 sequences had a point mutation in the 512th nucleotide (T512G), which generated a pre-termination stop codon truncating 38 amino acids in the C-terminal, suggesting that the C-terminal may not be essential to ecological and biological functions of P. infestans. A significant correlation between the frequency of Avr1 sequences with the pre-termination and annual mean temperature in the collection sites suggests that thermal heterogeneity might be one of contributors to the diversifying selection, although biological and biochemical mechanisms of the likely thermal adaptation are not known currently. Our results highlight the risk of rapid adaptation of P. infestans and possibly other pathogens as well to host resistance, and the application of eco-evolutionary principles is necessary for sustainable disease management in agricultural ecosystems.

Authors/Creators:Shen, Lin-Lin and Waheed, Abdul and Wang, Yan-Ping and Nkurikiyimfura, Oswald and Wang, Zong-Hua and Yang, Li-Na and Zhan, Jiasui
Title:Multiple Mechanisms Drive the Evolutionary Adaptation of Phytophthora infestans Effector Avr1 to Host Resistance
Series Name/Journal:Journal of Fungi
Year of publishing :2021
Volume:7
Number:10
Article number:789
Number of Pages:13
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Agricultural Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Microbiology (Microbiology in the medical area to be 30109)
Keywords:effector protein, mutation mechanisms, population genetics, natural selection, oomycete pathogen, intragenic recombination, local adaptation, sustainable disease management
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-115526
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-115526
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3390/jof7100789
Otherhttps://www.mdpi.com/2309-608X/7/10/789
Alternative URL:https://www.mdpi.com/2309-608X/7/10/789
ID Code:26818
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
(S) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:24 Jan 2022 19:25
Metadata Last Modified:25 Jan 2022 06:01

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