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Biodiversity patterns of Arctic diatom assemblages in lakes and streams: Current reference conditions and historical context for biomonitoring

Kahlert, Maria and Ruhland, Kathleen M. and Lavoie, Isabelle and Keck, Francois and Saulnier-Talbot, Emilie and Bogan, Daniel and Brua, Robert B. and Campeau, Stephane and Christoffersen, Kirsten S. and Culp, Joseph M. and Karjalainen, Satu Maaria and Lento, Jennifer and Schneider, Susanne C. and Shaftel, Rebecca and Smol, John P. (2022). Biodiversity patterns of Arctic diatom assemblages in lakes and streams: Current reference conditions and historical context for biomonitoring. Freshwater Biology. 67 :1 , 116-140
[Research article]

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Abstract

Comprehensive assessments of contemporary diatom distributions across the Arctic remain scarce. Furthermore, studies tracking species compositional differences across space and time, as well as diatom responses to climate warming, are mainly limited to paleolimnological studies due to a lack of routine monitoring in lakes and streams across vast areas of the Arctic. The study aims to provide a spatial assessment of contemporary species distributions across the circum-Arctic, establish contemporary biodiversity patterns of diatom assemblages to use as reference conditions for future biomonitoring assessments, and determine pre-industrial baseline conditions to provide historical context for modern diatom distributions. Diatom assemblages were assessed using information from ongoing regulatory monitoring programmes, individual research projects, and from surface sediment layers obtained from lake cores. Pre-industrial baseline conditions as well as the nature, direction and magnitude of changes in diatom assemblages over the pastc.200 years were determined by comparing surface sediment samples (i.e. containing modern assemblages) with a sediment interval deposited prior to the onset of significant anthropogenic activities (i.e. containing pre-1850 assemblages), together with an examination of diatoms preserved in contiguous samples from dated sediment cores. We identified several biotypes with distinct diatom assemblages using contemporary diatom data from both lakes and streams, including a biotype typical for High Arctic regions. Differences in diatom assemblage composition across circum-Arctic regions were gradual rather than abrupt. Species richness was lowest in High Arctic regions compared to Low Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, and higher in lakes than in streams. Dominant diatom taxa were not endemic to the Arctic. Species richness in both lakes and streams reached maximum values between 60 degrees N and 75 degrees N but was highly variable, probably reflecting differences in local and regional environmental factors and possibly sampling effort. We found clear taxon-specific differences between contemporary and pre-industrial samples that were often specific to both ecozone and lake depth. Regional patterns of species turnover (beta-diversity) in the pastc.200 years revealed that regions of the Canadian High Arctic and the Hudson Bay Lowlands to the south showed most compositional change, whereas the easternmost regions of the Canadian Arctic changed least. As shown in previous Arctic diatom studies, global warming has already affected these remote high latitude ecosystems. Our results provide reference conditions for future environmental monitoring programmes in the Arctic. Furthermore, diatom taxa identification and harmonisation require improvement, starting with circum-Arctic intercalibrations. Despite the challenges posed by the remoteness of the Arctic, our study shows the need for routine monitoring programmes that have a wide geographical coverage for both streams and lakes.

Authors/Creators:Kahlert, Maria and Ruhland, Kathleen M. and Lavoie, Isabelle and Keck, Francois and Saulnier-Talbot, Emilie and Bogan, Daniel and Brua, Robert B. and Campeau, Stephane and Christoffersen, Kirsten S. and Culp, Joseph M. and Karjalainen, Satu Maaria and Lento, Jennifer and Schneider, Susanne C. and Shaftel, Rebecca and Smol, John P.
Title:Biodiversity patterns of Arctic diatom assemblages in lakes and streams: Current reference conditions and historical context for biomonitoring
Series Name/Journal:Freshwater Biology
Year of publishing :2022
Volume:67
Number:1
Page range:116-140
Number of Pages:25
Publisher:WILEY
ISSN:0046-5070
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 105 Earth and Related Environmental Sciences > Climate Research
Keywords:circumpolar, diatom biotypes, environmental monitoring, global warming, paleolimnology
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-107927
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-107927
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1111/fwb.13490
Web of Science (WoS)000563544100001
ID Code:26926
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:08 Feb 2022 11:25
Metadata Last Modified:08 Feb 2022 11:31

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