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Not dead yet: Diatom resting spores can survive in nature for several millennia

Sanyal, Anushree and Larsson, Josefine and van Wirdum, Falkje and Andren, Thomas and Moros, Matthias and Lonn, Mikael and Andren, Elinor (2022). Not dead yet: Diatom resting spores can survive in nature for several millennia. American Journal of Botany. 109 :1 , 67-82
[Research article]

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Abstract

Premise: Understanding the adaptive capacities of species over long timescales lies in examining the revived recent and millennia-old resting spores buried in sediments. We show for the first time the revival, viability, and germination rate of resting spores of the diatom Chaetoceros deposited in sub-seafloor sediments from three ages (recent: 0 to 80 years; ancient: similar to 1250 (Medieval Climate Anomaly) and similar to 6600 (Holocene Thermal Maximum) calendar year before present.Methods: Recent and ancient Chaetoceros spores were revived to examine their viability and germination rate. Light and scanning electron microscopy and Sanger sequencing was done to identify the species.Results: We show that similar to 6600 cal. year BP old Chaetoceros resting spores are still viable and that the vegetative reproduction in recent and ancient resting spores varies. The time taken to germinate is three hours to 2 to 3 days in both recent and ancient spores, but the germination rate of the spores decreased with increasing age. The germination rate of the recent spores was similar to 41% while that of the ancient spores were similar to 31% and similar to 12% for the similar to 1250 and similar to 6600 cal. year BP old resting spores, respectively. Based on the morphology of the germinated vegetative cells we identified the species as Chaetoceros muelleri var. subsalsum. Sanger sequences of nuclear and chloroplast markers identified the species as Chaetoceros muelleri.Conclusions: We identify a unique model system, Chaetoceros muelleri var. subsalsum and show that recent and ancient resting spores of the species buried in sediments in the Baltic Sea can be revived and used for long-term evolutionary studies.

Authors/Creators:Sanyal, Anushree and Larsson, Josefine and van Wirdum, Falkje and Andren, Thomas and Moros, Matthias and Lonn, Mikael and Andren, Elinor
Title:Not dead yet: Diatom resting spores can survive in nature for several millennia
Series Name/Journal:American Journal of Botany
Year of publishing :2022
Volume:109
Number:1
Page range:67-82
Number of Pages:16
Publisher:WILEY
ISSN:0002-9122
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Botany
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
Keywords:Baltic Sea, Chaetoceros muelleri var, subsalsum, germination rate, resting spore concentration, resurrection ecology
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-115380
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-115380
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1002/ajb2.1780
Web of Science (WoS)000739921100001
ID Code:27087
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
(S) > Dept. of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:14 Feb 2022 13:03
Metadata Last Modified:14 Feb 2022 13:11

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