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Impacts of wood extraction on soil: assessing rutting and soil compaction caused by skidding and forwarding by means of traditional and innovative methods

Marra, Elena and Laschi, Andrea and Fabiano, Fabio and Foderi, Cristiano and Neri, Francesco and Mastrolonardo, Giovanni and Nordfjell, Tomas and Marchi, Enrico (2022). Impacts of wood extraction on soil: assessing rutting and soil compaction caused by skidding and forwarding by means of traditional and innovative methods. European Journal of Forest Research. 141 :1 , 71-86
[Research article]

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Abstract

Intensive forestry operations may cause soil compaction, plastic soil disturbances and rutting, which are responsible for undesirable effects on soils, vegetation and water bodies. Despite the numerous studies aimed to identify the main factors affecting soil damages, it still remains unclear whether wood extraction methods and driving direction (uphill or downhill) may affect the impacts of forest machines. This research analyses soil compaction and soil penetration resistance as well as rutting from forwarding and skidding using the same farm tractor in up- and downhill wood extraction. Rutting was estimated by 3D soil reconstruction derived by portable laser scanning (PLS) and close-range photogrammetry using structure for motion (SfM). Our findings showed that the direction of extraction did not affect soil damage severity during forwarding on a 25% slope. On the contrary, in order to reduce soil compaction, downhill skidding is preferable to uphill skidding. The results showed that the pressure on the ground caused by vehicles can be distributed horizontally, thus affecting also the soil between the wheel tracks. The soil bulk density inside the tracks after 10 forwarding passes increased by 40% and with 23% between the wheel tracks. The soil displacement in skidding trails (7.36 m(3) per 100 m of trail) was significantly higher than in forwarding (1.68 m(3) per 100 m of trail). The rutting estimation showed no significant difference between the PLS and SfM methods, even comparing the two digital surface models (DSMs) obtained, even if photogrammetry was preferred for technical and practical reasons.

Authors/Creators:Marra, Elena and Laschi, Andrea and Fabiano, Fabio and Foderi, Cristiano and Neri, Francesco and Mastrolonardo, Giovanni and Nordfjell, Tomas and Marchi, Enrico
Title:Impacts of wood extraction on soil: assessing rutting and soil compaction caused by skidding and forwarding by means of traditional and innovative methods
Series Name/Journal:European Journal of Forest Research
Year of publishing :2022
Volume:141
Number:1
Page range:71-86
Number of Pages:16
Publisher:SPRINGER
ISSN:1612-4669
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Soil Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Forest Science
Keywords:Portable laser scanner, Digital elevation model, Soil disturbance
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114506
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-114506
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1007/s10342-021-01420-w
Web of Science (WoS)000719808400002
ID Code:27214
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(S) > Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:28 Feb 2022 10:25
Metadata Last Modified:28 Feb 2022 10:31

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