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Spatial distribution and load of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in background soils in Sweden

Sörengård, Mattias and Kikuchi, Johannes and Wiberg, Karin and Ahrens, Lutz (2022). Spatial distribution and load of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in background soils in Sweden. Chemosphere. 295 , 133944
[Research article]

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Abstract

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are known to be persistent, bioaccumulative, and have adverse health effects, but very little is known about PFAS in the terrestrial environment and factors influencing their distribution. This paper presents one of the first comprehensive studies investigating PFAS (n = 28) in background forest soils (n = 27) on national scale across Sweden. The results showed that 16 of 28 target PFAS were present and all sites contained at least three PFAS compounds, with total concentrations ranging between 0.40 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 6.6 ng/g dw. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) showed the highest detection frequency of 89% and a median concentration of 0.39 ng/g dw. The PFOS loads (ng/m(3)) showed a distinct spatial distribution, with a significant exponential increase from north to south (R-2 = 0.55; p < 0.001) and west to east (R-2 = 0.35; p < 0.01). In some parts of Sweden, the compound 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTSA) had a higher median concentration (1.4 ng/g dw), but was in comparison to PFOS more impacted by local sources. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed regional clustering of PFAS compositional profiles, indicating that PFAS soil background concentrations are functions of spatial variations at local, regional, and countrywide scale. Such spatial trends have not been observed previously and it could not be deduced whether they are indicative of trends on a global scale, or country-specific and better explained by proximity to densely populated urban areas. An interpolation and extrapolation raster map created from the results was used to calculate the average total PFAS load on Swedish soils. Estimated total load in the top 10-cm soil layer was 2.7 +/- 2.4 tons for PFOS and 16 +/- 14 tons for n-ary sumation PFAS, indicating that soil carries a considerable legacy of past PFAS release.

Authors/Creators:Sörengård, Mattias and Kikuchi, Johannes and Wiberg, Karin and Ahrens, Lutz
Title:Spatial distribution and load of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in background soils in Sweden
Series Name/Journal:Chemosphere
Year of publishing :2022
Volume:295
Article number:133944
Number of Pages:7
Publisher:PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
ISSN:0045-6535
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Soil Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 105 Earth and Related Environmental Sciences > Environmental Sciences (social aspects to be 507)
Keywords:PFAS, PFOS, Soil, Deposition
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-116400
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-116400
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.133944
Web of Science (WoS)000758401900012
ID Code:27335
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:18 Mar 2022 10:25
Metadata Last Modified:18 Mar 2022 10:31

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