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The number of tree species on Earth

Gatti, Roberto Cazzolla and Reich, Peter B. and Gamarra, Javier G. P. and Crowther, Tom and Hui, Cang and Morera, Albert and Bastin, Jean-Francois and de-Miguel, Sergio and Nabuurs, Gert-Jan and Svenning, Jens-Christian and Serra-Diaz, Josep M. and Merow, Cory and Enquist, Brian and Kamenetsky, Maria and Lee, Junho and Zhu, Jun and Fang, Jinyun and Jacobs, Douglass F. and Pijanowski, Bryan and Banerjee, Arindam and Giaquinto, Robert A. and Alberti, Giorgio and Almeyda Zambrano, Angelica Maria and Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro and Avitabile, Valerio and Baraloto, Chris and Bastian, Meredith L. and Birnbaum, Philippe and Bitariho, Robert and Bogaert, Jan and Bongers, Frans and Bouriaud, Olivier and Brancalion, Pedro H. S. and Brearley, Francis Q. and Broadbent, Eben North and Bussotti, Filippo and Castro da Silva, Wendeson and Gomes Cesar, Ricardo and Cesljar, Goran and Moscoso, Victor Chama and Chen, Han Y. H. and Cienciala, Emil and Clark, Connie J. and Coomes, David A. and Dayanandan, Selvadurai and Decuyper, Mathieu and Dee, Laura E. and Del Aguila Pasquel, Jhon and Derroire, Geraldine and Djuikouo, Marie Noel Kamdem and Do, Tran Van and Dolezal, Jiri and Dordevic, Ilija D. and Engel, Julien and Fayle, Tom M. and Feldpausch, Ted R. and Fridman, Jonas and Harris, David J. and Hemp, Andreas and Hengeveld, Geerten and Herault, Bruno and Herold, Martin and Ibanez, Thomas and Jagodzinski, Andrzej M. and Jaroszewicz, Bogdan and Jeffery, Kathryn J. and Johannsen, Vivian Kvist and Jucker, Tommaso and Kangur, Ahto and Karminov, Victor N. and Kartawinata, Kuswata and Kennard, Deborah K. and Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian and Keppel, Gunnar and Khan, Mohammed Latif and Khare, Pramod Kumar and Kileen, Timothy J. and Kim, Hyun Seok and Korjus, Henn and Kumar, Amit and Kumar, Ashwani and Laarmann, Diana and Labriere, Nicolas and Lang, Mait and Lewis, Simon L. and Lukina, Natalia and Maitner, Brian S. and Malhi, Yadvinder and Marshall, Andrew R. and Martynenko, Olga V. and Mendoza, Abel L. Monteagudo and Ontikov, Petr V. and Ortiz-Malavasi, Edgar and Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui and Paquette, Alain and Park, Minjee and Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy and Peri, Pablo Luis and Petronelli, Pascal and Pfautsch, Sebastian and Phillips, Oliver L. and Picard, Nicolas and Piotto, Daniel and Poorter, Lourens and Poulsen, John R. and Pretzsch, Hans and Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma and Correa, Zorayda Restrepo and Rodeghiero, Mirco and Gonzales, Rocio Del Pilar Rojas and Rolim, Samir G. and Rovero, Francesco and Rutishauser, Ervan and Saikia, Purabi and Salas-Eljatib, Christian and Schepaschenko, Dmitry and Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael and Seben, Vladimir and Silveira, Marcos and Sonke, Bonaventure and Souza, Alexandre F. and Sterenczak, Krzysztof Jan and Svoboda, Miroslav and Taedoumg, Hermann and Tchebakova, Nadja and Terborgh, John and Tikhonova, Elena and Torres-Lezama, Armando and van der Plas, Fons and Vasquez, Rodolfo and Viana, Helder and Vibrans, Alexander C. and Vilanova, Emilio and Vos, Vincent A. and Wang, Hua-Feng and Westerlund, Bertil and White, Lee J. T. and Wiser, Susan K. and Zawila-Niedzwiecki, Tomasz and Zhu, Zhi-Xin and Zo-Bi, Irie C. and Liang, Jingjing (2022). The number of tree species on Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 119 :6 , e2115329119
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Abstract

One of the most fundamental questions in ecology is how many species inhabit the Earth. However, due to massive logistical and financial challenges and taxonomic difficulties connected to the species concept definition, the global numbers of species, including those of important and well-studied life forms such as trees, still remain largely unknown. Here, based on global groundsourced data, we estimate the total tree species richness at global, continental, and biome levels. Our results indicate that there are 73,000 tree species globally, among which ∼9,000 tree species are yet to be discovered. Roughly 40% of undiscovered tree species are in South America. Moreover, almost one-third of all tree species to be discovered may be rare, with very low populations and limited spatial distribution (likely in remote tropical lowlands and mountains). These findings highlight the vulnerability of global forest biodiversity to anthropogenic changes in land use and climate, which disproportionately threaten rare species and thus, global tree richness.

Authors/Creators:Gatti, Roberto Cazzolla and Reich, Peter B. and Gamarra, Javier G. P. and Crowther, Tom and Hui, Cang and Morera, Albert and Bastin, Jean-Francois and de-Miguel, Sergio and Nabuurs, Gert-Jan and Svenning, Jens-Christian and Serra-Diaz, Josep M. and Merow, Cory and Enquist, Brian and Kamenetsky, Maria and Lee, Junho and Zhu, Jun and Fang, Jinyun and Jacobs, Douglass F. and Pijanowski, Bryan and Banerjee, Arindam and Giaquinto, Robert A. and Alberti, Giorgio and Almeyda Zambrano, Angelica Maria and Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro and Avitabile, Valerio and Baraloto, Chris and Bastian, Meredith L. and Birnbaum, Philippe and Bitariho, Robert and Bogaert, Jan and Bongers, Frans and Bouriaud, Olivier and Brancalion, Pedro H. S. and Brearley, Francis Q. and Broadbent, Eben North and Bussotti, Filippo and Castro da Silva, Wendeson and Gomes Cesar, Ricardo and Cesljar, Goran and Moscoso, Victor Chama and Chen, Han Y. H. and Cienciala, Emil and Clark, Connie J. and Coomes, David A. and Dayanandan, Selvadurai and Decuyper, Mathieu and Dee, Laura E. and Del Aguila Pasquel, Jhon and Derroire, Geraldine and Djuikouo, Marie Noel Kamdem and Do, Tran Van and Dolezal, Jiri and Dordevic, Ilija D. and Engel, Julien and Fayle, Tom M. and Feldpausch, Ted R. and Fridman, Jonas and Harris, David J. and Hemp, Andreas and Hengeveld, Geerten and Herault, Bruno and Herold, Martin and Ibanez, Thomas and Jagodzinski, Andrzej M. and Jaroszewicz, Bogdan and Jeffery, Kathryn J. and Johannsen, Vivian Kvist and Jucker, Tommaso and Kangur, Ahto and Karminov, Victor N. and Kartawinata, Kuswata and Kennard, Deborah K. and Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian and Keppel, Gunnar and Khan, Mohammed Latif and Khare, Pramod Kumar and Kileen, Timothy J. and Kim, Hyun Seok and Korjus, Henn and Kumar, Amit and Kumar, Ashwani and Laarmann, Diana and Labriere, Nicolas and Lang, Mait and Lewis, Simon L. and Lukina, Natalia and Maitner, Brian S. and Malhi, Yadvinder and Marshall, Andrew R. and Martynenko, Olga V. and Mendoza, Abel L. Monteagudo and Ontikov, Petr V. and Ortiz-Malavasi, Edgar and Camacho, Nadir C. Pallqui and Paquette, Alain and Park, Minjee and Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy and Peri, Pablo Luis and Petronelli, Pascal and Pfautsch, Sebastian and Phillips, Oliver L. and Picard, Nicolas and Piotto, Daniel and Poorter, Lourens and Poulsen, John R. and Pretzsch, Hans and Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma and Correa, Zorayda Restrepo and Rodeghiero, Mirco and Gonzales, Rocio Del Pilar Rojas and Rolim, Samir G. and Rovero, Francesco and Rutishauser, Ervan and Saikia, Purabi and Salas-Eljatib, Christian and Schepaschenko, Dmitry and Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael and Seben, Vladimir and Silveira, Marcos and Sonke, Bonaventure and Souza, Alexandre F. and Sterenczak, Krzysztof Jan and Svoboda, Miroslav and Taedoumg, Hermann and Tchebakova, Nadja and Terborgh, John and Tikhonova, Elena and Torres-Lezama, Armando and van der Plas, Fons and Vasquez, Rodolfo and Viana, Helder and Vibrans, Alexander C. and Vilanova, Emilio and Vos, Vincent A. and Wang, Hua-Feng and Westerlund, Bertil and White, Lee J. T. and Wiser, Susan K. and Zawila-Niedzwiecki, Tomasz and Zhu, Zhi-Xin and Zo-Bi, Irie C. and Liang, Jingjing
Title:The number of tree species on Earth
Series Name/Journal:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Year of publishing :2022
Volume:119
Number:6
Article number:e2115329119
Number of Pages:11
ISSN:0027-8424
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Ecology
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Forest Science
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 106 Biological Sciences (Medical to be 3 and Agricultural to be 4) > Botany
Keywords:biodiversity, forests, hyperdominance, rarity, richness
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-115835
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-115835
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1073/pnas.2115329119
Web of Science (WoS)000758488400010
ID Code:27591
Faculty:S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(S) > Dept. of Forest Resource Management
(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Forest Resource Management
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:21 Apr 2022 15:11
Metadata Last Modified:21 Apr 2022 15:21

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