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Global maps of soil temperature

Lembrechts, Jonas J. and van den Hoogen, Johan and Grelle, Achim and Järveoja, Järvi and Nilsson, Mats and Peichl, Matthias and Stephan, Jörg and Nijs, Ivan and Lenoir, Jonathan (2021). Global maps of soil temperature. Global Change Biology. 28 :9 , 3110-3144
[Research article]

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Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km2 resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km2 pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (−0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.

Authors/Creators:Lembrechts, Jonas J. and van den Hoogen, Johan and Grelle, Achim and Järveoja, Järvi and Nilsson, Mats and Peichl, Matthias and Stephan, Jörg and Nijs, Ivan and Lenoir, Jonathan
Title:Global maps of soil temperature
Series Name/Journal:Global Change Biology
Year of publishing :2021
Page range:3110-3144
Number of Pages:35
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Accepted version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Soil Science
Permanent URL:
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
ID Code:27614
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
S - Faculty of Forest Sciences
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Ecology
(S) > Dept. of Ecology

(S) > Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management
(NL, NJ) > Swedish Species Information Centre
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:26 Apr 2022 06:26
Metadata Last Modified:17 May 2022 03:17

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