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Lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.) demonstrated in domestic pigs with respiratory disease: was there a clinical relevance?

Wallgren, Per and Pettersson, Emelie (2022). Lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.) demonstrated in domestic pigs with respiratory disease: was there a clinical relevance? Porcine Health Management. 8 :1 , 16
[Research article]

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Abstract

Background An outdoor pig herd was affected by severe respiratory disease in one out of three pastures. At necropsy, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida were detected in the lungs, as well as the lung worm Metastrongylus apri. The life cycle of Metastrongylus spp. includes earthworms as intermediate hosts, and since domestic pigs mainly are reared indoors, lungworm infections have not been diagnosed in domestic pigs in Sweden for decades, not even in pigs reared outdoors. Therefore, this disease outbreak was scrutinised from the view of validating the impact of Metastrongylus spp. Results At the time of the disease outbreak, neither eggs of Metastrongylus spp., Trichuris suis nor Ascaris suum were detected in faeces of pigs aged ten weeks. In contrast, five-months-old pigs at the pasture with respiratory disease shed up to 3800 eggs per gram (Epg) of Ascaris suum and up to 1100 Epg of Trichuris suis, whereas eggs of these parasites were not demonstrated in healthy pigs aged six months at another pasture. Low numbers of eggs from Metastrongylus spp. (< 150 Epg) were seen in faecal samples from both these age categories. At slaughter, seven weeks later, ten normal weighted pigs in the preceding healthy batch were compared with ten normal weighted and five small pigs from the affected batch. Healing Mycoplasma-like pneumonic lesions were seen in all groups. All small pigs shed eggs of Ascaris suum in the faeces, compared to around 50% of the larger pigs. Metastrongylus spp. were demonstrated in 13 of the 25 pigs (52%), representing all groups included. Conclusion As Metastrongylus spp. were demonstrated regardless of health status, and also in another healthy outdoor herd, the impact of Metastrongylus spp. on the outbreak of respiratory disease was depreciated. Instead, a possible association with a high burden of Ascaris suum was suggested to have preceded the severe outbreak with respiratory disease in the affected herd. Further, it was concluded that Metastrongylus spp. will escape detection at routine meat inspections made at slaughterhouses, and as they appeared to generally not induce clinical signs of respiratory disease Metastrongylus spp. may be more common in outdoor production than previously believed.

Authors/Creators:Wallgren, Per and Pettersson, Emelie
Title:Lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.) demonstrated in domestic pigs with respiratory disease: was there a clinical relevance?
Series Name/Journal:Porcine Health Management
Year of publishing :2022
Volume:8
Number:1
Article number:16
Number of Pages:11
Publisher:BMC
ISSN:2055-5660
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 403 Veterinary Science > Clinical Science
Keywords:Pig, Outdoor, Metastrongylus spp, Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Pneumonia
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-116829
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-116829
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.1186/s40813-022-00258-x
Web of Science (WoS)000781908000001
Scopus2-s2.0-85128330501
ID Code:27823
Faculty:VH - Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Clinical Sciences
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:14 May 2022 01:25
Metadata Last Modified:14 May 2022 05:01

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