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Sustainability of Diets in Mexico: Diet Quality, Environmental Footprint, Diet Cost, and Sociodemographic Factors

Curi-Quinto, Katherine and Unar-Munguia, Mishel and Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sonia and Rivera, Juan A. and Fanzo, Jessica and Willett, Walter and Röös, Elin (2022). Sustainability of Diets in Mexico: Diet Quality, Environmental Footprint, Diet Cost, and Sociodemographic Factors. Frontiers in Nutrition. 9 , 855793
[Research article]

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Abstract

BackgroundLittle is known about the current intake of sustainable diets globally and specifically in middle-income countries, considering nutritional, environmental and economic factors. ObjectiveTo assess and characterize the sustainability of Mexican diets and their association with sociodemographic factors. DesignDietary data of 2,438 adults within the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 by integrating diet quality measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2015), diet cost, and four environmental indicators were analyzed: land use (LU), biodiversity loss (BDL), carbon footprint (CFP), and blue water footprint (BWFP). We defined healthier more sustainable diets (MSD) as those with HEI-2015 above the overall median, and diet cost and environmental indicators below the median. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of sociodemographic factors with MSD. ResultsMSD were consumed by 10.2% of adults (4% of urban and 22% of rural), who had lower intake of animal-source foods, unhealthy foods (refined grains, added sugar and fats, mixed processed dishes and sweetened beverages), fruits, and vegetables, and higher intake of whole grains than non-MSD subjects. Characteristics of MSD vs. non-MSD (urban; rural) were: HEI-2015 (62.6 vs. 51.9; 66.8 vs. 57.6), diet-cost (1.9 vs. 2.8; 1.9 vs. 2.5 USD), LU (3.3 vs. 6.6; 3.2 vs. 5.9 m(2)), BDL (105 vs. 780; 87 vs. 586 species x 10(-10)), BWFP (244 vs. 403; 244 vs. 391 L), and CFP (1.6 vs. 4.4; 1.6 vs. 3.7 kg CO(2)eq). Adults from rural vs. urban (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.7, 4.1), or from the South (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9), Center (OR 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.4) vs. the North were more likely to consume MSD, while adults with high vs. low socioeconomic status were less likely (OR 0.17; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.3). ConclusionsThe MSD is a realistic diet pattern mainly found in disadvantaged populations, but diet quality is still sub-optimal. Increased consumption of legumes, fruits, and vegetables, and a reduction in unhealthy foods, is required to improve nutritional quality of diets while ensuring their environmental sustainability.

Authors/Creators:Curi-Quinto, Katherine and Unar-Munguia, Mishel and Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sonia and Rivera, Juan A. and Fanzo, Jessica and Willett, Walter and Röös, Elin
Title:Sustainability of Diets in Mexico: Diet Quality, Environmental Footprint, Diet Cost, and Sociodemographic Factors
Series Name/Journal:Frontiers in Nutrition
Year of publishing :2022
Volume:9
Article number:855793
Number of Pages:12
Publisher:FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
Language:English
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Published version
Copyright:Creative Commons: Attribution 4.0
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 3 Medical and Health Sciences > 303 Health Sciences > Nutrition and Dietetics
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 5 Social Sciences > 509 Other Social Sciences > Social Sciences Interdisciplinary (Peace and Conflict Research and Studies on Sustainable Society)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 105 Earth and Related Environmental Sciences > Environmental Sciences (social aspects to be 507)
Keywords:sustainable diet, Mexico, diet cost, environmental footprint, carbon footprint, land use, water footprint
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-118040
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-p-118040
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
DOI10.3389/fnut.2022.855793
Web of Science (WoS)000808920200001
ID Code:28663
Faculty:NJ - Fakulteten för naturresurser och jordbruksvetenskap
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Energy and Technology
Deposited By: SLUpub Connector
Deposited On:30 Aug 2022 14:03
Metadata Last Modified:30 Aug 2022 14:11

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