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Alkylresorcinols in cereal grains

occurrence, absorption, and possible use as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake

Ross, Alastair Benjamin (2003). Alkylresorcinols in cereal grains. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Agraria, 1401-6249 ; 417
ISBN 91-576-6445-5
[Doctoral thesis]

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Alkylresorcinols are phenolic lipids present at levels of up to 0.15% of whole grain wheat and rye, but little is known about their presence in food, absorption in animals and humans, and their in vivo biological effects. Because alkylresorcinols are present in the human diet in significant amounts only in products containing whole grain wheat or rye, they have potential to be biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake. This thesis describes some of the research undertaken to investigate whether alkylresorcinols could be biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake. A rapid gas chromatographic method was developed to analyse alkylresorcinols in whole cereal grains. This method was then applied to detect the presence and amount of alkylresorcinols in several cereal grains. Wheat, rye and triticale all contain moderate to high amounts of alkylresorcinols (300-1500 µg/g), while barley contains low amounts (~50 µg/g). In these cereals, alkylresorcinols are present in the bran fraction. All other cereals analysed (rice, oats, maize, sorghum and millet) did not contain any detectable amounts of alkylresorcinols. Previous studies have suggested that alkylresorcinols are destroyed by the baking process. However, an extraction method using hot propanol:water was able to recover all alkylresorcinols from experimental breads, indicating that alkylresorcinols are not destroyed during baking. The absorption of alkylresorcinols in rats, pigs and humans was determined, with values for absorption ranging from 34–79%, depending on the model and the amount of alkylresorcinols consumed. Alkylresorcinols in the plasma of pigs fed a single meal of rye, peaked at 3-4 hours, and remained elevated compared to the baseline levels after 16 hours. Preliminary studies to find alkylresorcinol metabolites in humans suggest that they have their alkyl chains shortened by β-oxidation. The effect of purified rye alkylresorcinols on lipid parameters (tocopherols, cholesterol and fatty acids) was tested on a rat model. Alkylresorcinols did not appear to affect rat performance, but in high amounts they could decrease liver cholesterol, and moderately elevate γ-tocopherol levels. Overall, the results suggest that alkylresorcinols do not have a large effect on lipid absorption/metabolism in rats.

Authors/Creators:Ross, Alastair Benjamin
Title:Alkylresorcinols in cereal grains
Subtitle:occurrence, absorption, and possible use as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Agraria
Year of publishing :September 2003
Number of Pages:22
ALLI. Ross, A.B., Kamal-Eldin, A., Åman, P. Dietary alkylresorcinols: absorption, bioactivities and possible use as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye rich foods. Submitted for publication. II. Ross, A.B., Kamal-Eldin, A., Jung, C., Shepherd M.J., & Åman, P. 2001. Gas chromatographic analysis of alkylresorcinols in rye (Secale cereale L) grains. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 81, 1405-1411. III. Ross, A.B., Shepherd, M.J., Schüpphaus, M., Sinclair, V., Alfaro, B., Kamal-Eldin, A., Åman, P. 2003. Alkylresorcinols in cereals and cereal products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 4111-4118. IV. Ross, A.B., Shepherd M.J., Bach Knudsen, K.E., Glitsø L.V., Bowey, E., Phillips, J., Rowland, I., Guo, Z.-X., Massy, D.J.R., Åman, P., Kamal-Eldin, A. 2003. Absorption of dietary alkylresorcinols in ileal-cannulated pigs and rats. British Journal of Nutrition. In press. V. Ross, A.B., Kamal-Eldin, A., Lundin, E.A., Zhang, J-X., Hallmans, G., Åman, P. 2003. Cereal alkylresorcinols are absorbed by humans. Journal of Nutrition 133, 2222-2224. VI. Linko, A-M., Ross, A.B., Kamal-Eldin, A., Serena, A., Bjørnbak Kjær, A.K., Jørgensen, H., Adlercreutz, H., Åman, P., Bach Knudsen, K.E. Kinetics of cereal alkylresorcinol uptake in pigs. Manuscript. VII. Ross, A.B., Åman, P., Kamal-Eldin, A. A note on the preliminary identification of possible cereal alkylresorcinol metabolites in human urine. Manuscript. VIII. Ross, A.B., Chen, Y., Kozubek, A., Frank, J., Lundh, T., Vessby, B., Åman, P., Kamal-Eldin, A. Cereal alkylresorcinols decrease liver cholesterol and weakly elevate tocopherol levels in rats. Manuscript.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:91-576-6445-5
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:S Human nutrition > S20 Physiology of human nutrition
F Plant production > F60 Plant physiology and biochemistry
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:cereals, cereal crops, grain, phenolic compounds, analytical methods, digestive absorption
Keywords:Alkylresorcinols, whole grain cereals, biomarker, cardol
Permanent URL:
ID Code:340
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Food Science (until 161231)
Deposited By: Alastair Ross
Deposited On:05 Sep 2003 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:03

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