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Use efficiency and leaching of nutrients in organic and conventional cropping systems in Sweden

Bergström, Lars and Kirchmann, Holger and Aronsson, Helena and Torstensson, Gunnar and Mattsson, Lennart (2008). Use efficiency and leaching of nutrients in organic and conventional cropping systems in Sweden. I/In: Organic crop production : ambitions and limitations. Sid./p. 143-159. Springer, Dordrecht
ISBN 978-1-4020-9315-9
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Official URL: http://www.springer.com/life+sci/agriculture/book/...

Abstract

In the past few years, organic farming has been proposed as a possible way of reducing N leaching from agricultural soils and improving the use efficiency of plant nutrients. This is, to a large extent, considered to be attributed to the fact that synthetic fertilisers are not allowed in such systems and the N inputs mainly originate in various types of organic manures. In this overview, results from a number of Swedish field studies are presented in which crop yields, nutrient-use efficiencies and leaching in organic and conventional systems are evaluated. Some studies were conducted in lysimeters and others in large tile-drained field plots. In two lysimeter experiments, leaching of N derived from either poultry manure or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) green manure were compared with fertiliser N, all labeled with 15- N. In the lysimeters on which poultry manure was applied, 32% of N applied leached during three years, whereas only about 3% leached in ammonium nitrate fertilised lysimeters. In plots on a sandy soil, annual N leaching loads averaged over the whole 6-yr crop rotation reached 39 kg N ha-1 in the organic rotations and 25 kg N ha-1 in the conventional rotation. Phosphorusleaching loads were overall small in all systems, whereas K leaching was highest in the conventional rotation (i.e., on average, 27 kg ha-1 yr-1). In terms of crop yields, they were reduced by 20 to 80% in the organic rotations compared to the same crops in the conventional rotations. This was explained in terms of N deficiency, weed competition, and infestation of crop diseases in the organic systems. These results suggest that organic crop production uses agricultural soils less efficiently, with no benefit for water quality.

Authors/Creators:Bergström, Lars and Kirchmann, Holger and Aronsson, Helena and Torstensson, Gunnar and Mattsson, Lennart
Title:Use efficiency and leaching of nutrients in organic and conventional cropping systems in Sweden
Year of publishing :2008
Page range:143-159
Publisher:Springer, Dordrecht
Associated Programs and Other Stakeholders:Z - SLU - Libray > Odla mera
ISBN for printed version:978-1-4020-9315-9
Language:English
Additional Information:The original publication is available at http://www.springer.com
Publication Type:Book Chapter
Refereed:Yes
Version:Accepted version
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:Obsolete subject words > FORESTRY, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES and LANDSCAPE PLANNING > Soil science
Keywords:Crop yields, Fertilisers, Manures, Water quality, Weed pressure
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-1-157
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-1-157
ID Code:3511
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Soil and Environment
(S) > Dept. of Soil and Environment
Deposited By: Staff Epsilon
Deposited On:26 Jan 2009 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:22 Mar 2015 15:14

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