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Cadmium in newborns

bioavailability from infant food studied in a rat pup, a piglet and a human intestinal cell line model

Eklund, Gunilla (2003). Cadmium in newborns. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Veterinaria, 1401-6257 ; 164
ISBN 91-576-6399-8
[Doctoral thesis]

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Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known nephrotoxic environmental contaminant but there are indications that the developing nervous system might be even more sensitive to Cd than the kidneys in adults. Infants are exposed to Cd from various formulas and infant diets and the gastrointestinal Cd uptake is believed to be higher in newborns than in adults. Cd levels monitored in infant foods ranged between 0.74 and 27.0 µg/kg. Cow's milk formulas had the lowest levels and cereal-based formulas had up to 21 times higher mean levels. The mean weekly Cd exposure from the recommended formula intake was calculated to vary between 0.10 and 3.05 µg/kg body weight. Rat pups received an oral dose of 109Cd in water or four different formulas. The whole-body Cd retention was higher in the pups than previously reported in adult animals and highest in the water and in the cow's milk formula groups. The small intestinal Cd retention was high, even 9 days after exposure indicating a long absorption period in the newborns. Cd levels in kidney increased still 12 days after exposure in all diet groups. Piglets received low daily doses of Cd in water or wheat/oat/milk-based follow-up formula. The formula reduced Cd uptake in comparison to water, but the distribution of Cd to the kidneys was unexpectedly higher when Cd was given in formula than in water. Simulated infant digestion of infant foods resulted in lower solubility of Cd compared to adult digestion. In a human Caco-2 cell model, cellular Cd uptake and transport from five different infant food digests was approximately one order of magnitude lower than the solubility and varied between 4-6 % and 1-2 % of the dose, respectively. Binding of Cd to dietary fibres and phytic acid reduces intestinal Cd retention and probably explains the lower Cd bioavailability from cereal-based formulas compared to water or cow's milk formula. The exposure of Cd is higher from infant formulas than from breast milk and age-specific digestion conditions as well as composition of diets affect both the Cd solubility and bioavailability. The calculated Cd intake from recommended amount of infant formulas is below the established provisional tolerable weekly intake, which however, does not include a safety factor and is based on renal effects in adults.

Authors/Creators:Eklund, Gunilla
Title:Cadmium in newborns
Subtitle:bioavailability from infant food studied in a rat pup, a piglet and a human intestinal cell line model
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Veterinaria
Year of publishing :November 2003
Number of Pages:52
ALLI. Eklund G, Oskarsson A. 1999. Exposure of cadmium from infant formulas and weaning foods. Food Additives and Contaminants 16, 509-519. II. Eklund G, Petersson Grawé K, Oskarsson A. 2001. Bioavailability of cadmium from infant diets in newborn rats. Archives of Toxicology 75, 522-530. III. Eklund G, Tallkvist J, Oskarsson A. A piglet model for studies of gastro-intestinal uptake of cadmium in neonates. Accepted in Toxicology Letters. IV. Eklund G, Lindén A, Tallkvist J, Oskarsson A. 2003. Bioavailability of cadmium from in vitro digested infant food studied in Caco-2 cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 4168-4174.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:91-576-6399-8
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:Q Food science > Q03 Food contamination and toxicology
S Human nutrition > S30 Diet and diet-related diseases
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:bioavailability, food safety, infant foods, infants, in vitro experimentation, digestibility, metalloproteins, thioneins, cadmium, piglets, trace elements
Keywords:bioavailability, Caco-2 cells, food safety, formula, infant, in vitro digestion, metallothionein, piglet, trace element
Permanent URL:
ID Code:392
Department:(VH) > Institutionen för farmakologi och toxikologi
Deposited By: Gunilla Eklund
Deposited On:12 Nov 2003 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:04

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