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Patterns and scale relations among urbanization measures in Stockholm, Sweden

Andersson, Erik and Ahrné, Karin and Pyykönen, Markku and Elmqvist, Thomas (2009). Patterns and scale relations among urbanization measures in Stockholm, Sweden. Landscape ecology. 24 :10 , 1331-1339
[Research article]

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10980-009-9385-1


In this study we measure urbanization based on a diverse set of 21 variables ranging from landscape indices to demographic factors such as income and land ownership using data from Stockholm, Sweden. The primary aims were to test how the variables behaved in relation to each other and if these patterns were consistent across scales. The variables were mostly identified from the literature and limited to the kind of data that was readily accessible. We used GIS to sample the variables and then principal component analyses to search for patterns among them, repeating the sampling and analysis at four different scales (250 × 250, 750 × 750, 1,250 × 1,250 and 1,750 × 1,750, all in meters). At the smallest scale most variables seemed to be roughly structured along two axes, one with landscape indices and one mainly with demographic factors but also impervious surface and coniferous forest. The other land-cover types did not align very well with these two axes. When increasing the scale this pattern was not as obvious, instead the variables separated into several smaller bundles of highly correlated variables. Some pairs or bundles of variables were correlated on all scales and thus interchangeable while other associations changed with scale. This is important to keep in mind when one chooses measures of urbanization, especially if the measures are indices based on several variables. Comparing our results with the findings from other cities, we argue that universal gradients will be difficult to find since city shape and size, as well as available information, differ greatly. We also believe that a multivariate gradient is needed if you wish not only to compare cities but also ask questions about how urbanization influences the ecological character in different parts of a city.

Authors/Creators:Andersson, Erik and Ahrné, Karin and Pyykönen, Markku and Elmqvist, Thomas
Title:Patterns and scale relations among urbanization measures in Stockholm, Sweden
Series Name/Journal:Landscape ecology
Year of publishing :December 2009
Page range:1331-1339
Publication Type:Research article
Article category:Scientific peer reviewed
Version:Accepted version
Full Text Status:Public
Subjects:Obsolete subject words > FORESTRY, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES and LANDSCAPE PLANNING > Landscape planning
Keywords:Urban gradient, Scale
Permanent URL:
Additional ID:
Type of IDID
ID Code:4094
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Ecology
(S) > Dept. of Ecology

(S) > Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre
Deposited By: Erik Andersson
Deposited On:17 Nov 2009 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:27

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