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Problems in the control of nematode parasites of small ruminants in Malaysia

resistance to anthelmintics and the biological control alternative

Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani (2004). Problems in the control of nematode parasites of small ruminants in Malaysia. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Veterinaria, 1401-6257 ; 172
ISBN 91-576-6664-4
[Doctoral thesis]

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Nematode parasitic disease, attributed mainly Haemonchus contortus, is the greatest disease problem of small ruminants in Malaysia. This thesis comprises 6 studies on the emergence of anthelmintic resistance in these parasites, and how control may be managed by exploiting the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans. A survey of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) on Peninsular Malaysia revealed 50% of the sheep (n=39) and 75 % of the goat farms (n=9) were infected with nematode parasites that were resistant to the benzimidazoles. Resistance to levamisole, closantel and ivermectin was also detected. Another study on a government sheep breeding farm, showed multiple AR involving the benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin (plus suspect moxidectin resistance). Continuing these investigations to eastern Malaysia, showed anthelmintic failure to all the broad-spectrum groups on all the government small ruminant breeding farms. New approaches to worm control were urgently required. Studies on the potential of biological control by the use of nematophagous fungi against the free-living stages on pasture, were carried out to assess its suitability and efficacy for use in the tropical environment that is typical for Malaysia. In a survey for the presence of nematode trapping fungi from faecal samples of livestock, several nematophagous species including D. flagrans and Arthrobotrys oligospora were identified. Mass production of D. flagrans spores on various local media was attempted, and the product was also tested in pen trials where sheep were fed the spores at different dose rates, either as a supplement, or in feed blocks. Daily fungal feeding by both means resulted in an 80-95% reduction in infective larvae in faecal cultures. Similar results were found in small scale grazing experiments, where sheep were fed daily with fungal spores for 3 consecutive months. Pen trials comparing goats and sheep, showed no difference between the two livestock species. Larger scale field trials where D. flagrans was combined with rapid rotational grazing, showed excellent parasite control. This indicates that the integration of biological control with measures such as rotational grazing provides viable options for sustainable production of small ruminants in the tropics, where AR is becoming a major threat to livestock production.

Authors/Creators:Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani
Title:Problems in the control of nematode parasites of small ruminants in Malaysia
Subtitle:resistance to anthelmintics and the biological control alternative
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Veterinaria
Year of publishing :April 2004
Number of Pages:48
ALLI. Chandrawathani, P., Adnan, M. & Waller, P.J. 1999. Anthelmintic resistance in sheep and goat farms on peninsula Malaysia. Veterinary Parasitology 82, 305-310. II. Chandrawathani, P., Waller, P.J., Adnan, M. & Höglund, J. 2003. Evolution of high level, multiple anthelmintic resistance on a sheep farm in Malaysia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 35, 17-25. III. Chandrawathani, P., Yussof, N. & Waller, P.J. 2004. Total anthelmintic failure to control nematode parasites of small ruminants on government breeding farms in Sabah, east Malaysia. Veterinary Research Communications, (in press). IV. Chandrawathani, P., Jamnah, O., Waller, P.J., Höglund, J., Larsen, M. & Zahari, W.M. 2002. Nematophagous fungi as a biological control agent for nematode parasites in Malaysia: a special emphasis on Duddingtonia flagrans. Veterinary Research 33, 685-696. V. Chandrawathani, P., Jamnah, O., Waller, P.J., Larsen, M., Gillespie, A. & Zahari, W.M. 2003. Biological control of nematode parasites of small ruminants in Malaysia using the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans. Veterinary Parasitology 117, 173-183. VI. Chandrawathani, P., Jamnah, O., Adnan, M., Waller, P.J., Larsen, M. & Gillespie, A.T. 2004. Field studies on the biological control of nematode parasites of sheep in the tropics, using the microfungus Duddingtonia flagrans. Veterinary Parasitology 120, 177-187.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:91-576-6664-4
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:L Animal production > L72 Pests of animals
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:nematode infections, sheep, goats, anthelmintics, biological control, nematophagous fungi, malaysia
Keywords:nematode parasites, sheep, goats, anthelmintic resistance, biological control, Duddingtonia flagrans
Permanent URL:
ID Code:505
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health
Deposited By: Karin Troell
Deposited On:14 Apr 2004 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:05

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