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Evaluation of anthelmintic properties of ethnoveterinary plant preparations used as livestock dewormers by pastoralists and small holder farmers in Kenya

Githiori, John B. (2004). Evaluation of anthelmintic properties of ethnoveterinary plant preparations used as livestock dewormers by pastoralists and small holder farmers in Kenya. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae. Veterinaria, 1401-6257 ; 173
ISBN 91-576-6666-0
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Parasitic nematodes, especially Haemonchus contortus, are among the most common and economically important causes of infectious diseases of sheep and goats owned by pastoralists and small holder farmers in East Africa. In Kenya, control of these infections mainly relies on the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) preparations are widely used by pastoralists and small holder farmers (SHF) for treatment of their livestock against helminth parasites. This thesis covers the evaluation of the anthelmintic efficacy of some EVM preparations used by pastoralists and SHF in Kenya. The plant species selected, and prepared for animal dosing with the help of traditional healers (THs) were: Aframomum sanguineum, Albizia anthelmintica, Ananas comosus, Annona squamosa, Azadirachta indica, Dodonaea angustifolia, Hagenia abyssinica, Hildebrandtia sepalosa, Myrsine africana, Olea europaea var. africana, and Rapanea melanophloeos. Evaluation was carried out in two in vivo infection models, namely H. contortus in sheep and Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice. The anthelmintic efficacy of the EVM preparations was monitored through faecal egg count (FEC) reduction, at regular intervals for a period of 2 – 3 weeks post treatment in sheep. Monitoring in mice was done through FEC and total worm counts (TWC) one week after treatment. An a priori cut-off value of 70% reduction of FEC and TWC, to denote useful anthelmintic efficacy, was used for both sheep and mice. Of the ten plant species tested in sheep, the largest decrease of 34% in FEC was measured from a bark preparation of A. anthelmintica collected from the Samburu District. None of the other plant species had a significant effect on FEC. Similarly, the seven plant species and some of their related active constituents evaluated in mice did not significantly reduce FEC or remove parasites. Preparations of A. anthelmintica at doses above 0.5 g per mouse were toxic. In conclusion, no reduction of FEC or TWC greater than the a priori value of 70% was observed in sheep or in mice. Therefore, the plants evaluated were ineffective as anthelmintics in the preparations and forms that were used.

Authors/Creators:Githiori, John B.
Title:Evaluation of anthelmintic properties of ethnoveterinary plant preparations used as livestock dewormers by pastoralists and small holder farmers in Kenya
Year of publishing :April 2004
Volume:173
Number of Pages:72
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
ALLI. Githiori, J. B., Höglund, J., Waller, P. J. & Baker, R. L. 2002. Anthelmintic activity of preparations derived from Myrsine africana and Rapanea melanophloeos against the nematode parasite, Haemonchus contortus, of sheep. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 80, 187-191. II. Githiori, J. B., Höglund, J., Waller, P. J. & Baker, R. L. 2003. The anthelmintic efficacy of the plant, Albizia anthelmintica, against the nematode parasites Haemonchus contortus of sheep and Heligmosomoides polygyrus of mice. Veterinary Parasitology 116, 23-34. III. Githiori, J. B., Höglund, J., Waller, P. J. & Baker, R. L. 2003. Evaluation of anthelmintic properties of extracts from some plants used as livestock dewormers by pastoralist and smallholder farmers in Kenya against Heligmosomoides polygyrus infections in mice. Veterinary Parasitology 118, 215-226. IV. Githiori, J. B., Höglund, J., Waller, P. J. & Baker, R. L. 2004. Evaluation of anthelmintic properties of some plants used as livestock dewormers against Haemonchus contortus infections in sheep. Parasitology, in press.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:91-576-6666-0
ISSN:1401-6257
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:L Animal production > L72 Pests of animals
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:sheep, mice, haemonchus contortus, heligmosomoides polygyrus, anthelmintics, indigenous knowledge, pastoralism, small farms, kenya
Keywords:Ethnoveterinary preparations, sheep, mice, Haemonchus contortus, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, anthelmintic efficacy, pastoralists, smallholder farmers, Kenya
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-186
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-186
ID Code:514
Department:(VH) > Dept. of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health
Deposited By: John Githiori
Deposited On:14 Apr 2004 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:05

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