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Factors involved in the development of boar taint

influence of breed, age, diet and raising conditions

Zamaratskaia, Galia (2004). Factors involved in the development of boar taint. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae. Agraria, 1401-6249 ; 444
ISBN 91-576-6498-6
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Boar taint has been mainly associated with the presence of androstenone and skatole in adipose tissue of entire male pigs. This work was focused on the effects of breed, age, hormonal status, and diet composition on boar taint level. The results showed that skatole levels in entire male pigs varied considerably with age, and the degree as well as the pattern of this variation differs between different breeds. The initial increase in skatole levels might occur at a relatively young age of 8-10 weeks. Later, the levels of skatole decreased and remained low until puberty. As puberty development progressed, skatole levels increased again reaching very high levels in some individuals. The increase in skatole levels followed the increase in levels of testicular steroids. These findings indicate that there is a relationship between the process of sexual development and high skatole levels, and that the increase in the levels of testicular steroids at puberty may affect skatole levels. The decreased activities of the main enzymes controlling skatole metabolism in the liver also contributed to increased skatole levels during this period. No direct relationship between skatole and thyroid hormones and IGF-1 was found. The dietary supplement of raw potato starch or lower weight at slaughter reduced skatole levels in entire male pigs, but did not affect androstenone levels or the activities of cytochrome P4502E1 and cytochrome P4502A6. Raising entire male pigs in mixed pens resulted in increased skatole levels in plasma in pigs of 115 kg live weight fed raw potato starch. Androstenone levels were higher in pigs at 90 kg live weight raised in mixed pens, but not in heavier pigs. A new method to determine free oestrone in porcine adipose tissue was developed and applied to investigate the relationship between boar taint compounds and hormonal status in entire male pigs. Both skatole and androstenone were positively correlated to free oestrone levels. Overall, the results suggest that puberty is a main factor controlling androstenone levels. Skatole levels are regulated by a number of factors, including breed, age, hormonal status and diet.

Authors/Creators:Zamaratskaia, Galia
Title:Factors involved in the development of boar taint
Subtitle:influence of breed, age, diet and raising conditions
Year of publishing :April 2004
Volume:444
Number of Pages:51
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
ALLI. Babol, J., Zamaratskaia, G., Juneja, R.K. & Lundström, K. 2004.The effect of age on distribution of skatole and indole levels in entire male pigs in four breeds: Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire and Duroc. Meat Science 67, 351-358. II. Zamaratskaia, G., Babol, J., Andersson, H. & Lundström, K. 2004. Plasma skatole and androstenone levels in entire male pigs and relationship between boar taint compounds, sex steroids and thyroxine at various ages. Livestock Production Science (In press, Corrected Proof, Available online 2 December 2003). III. Zamaratskaia, G., Babol, J., Madej, A., Squires, E.J. & Lundström, K. 2004. Age-related variation of plasma concentrations of skatole, androstenone, testosterone, oestradiol-17b, oestrone sulphate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, triiodothyronine and IGF-1 in six entire male pigs. Reproduction in Domestic Animals 39, 1-5. IV. Zamaratskaia, G., Babol, J., Madej, A., Squires, E.J. & Lundström, K. 2004. Determination of free estrone in adipose tissue by radioimmunoassay and relationship between levels of free estrone, androstenone and skatole in fat of entire male pigs. Submitted for publication. V. Zamaratskaia, G., Babol, J., Andersson, H.K., Andersson, K. & Lundström, K. 2004. Effect of live weight and dietary supplement of raw potato starch on the relationship between levels of skatole, androstenone, testosterone and estrone sulphate in entire male pigs. Submitted for publication. VI. Zamaratskaia, G., Squires, E.J., Babol, J., Andersson, H.K., Andersson, K. & Lundström, K. 2004. Relationship between the activities of cytochromes P4502E1 and P4502A6 and skatole content in fat in entire male pigs fed a diet with and without raw potato starch. Submitted for publication.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:91-576-6498-6
ISSN:1401-6249
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:Q Food science > Q03 Food contamination and toxicology
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:boars, off flavours, skatole, androgens, sexual maturity, slaughter weight, diet
Keywords:Androstenone, skatole, hormonal status, puberty, slaughter weight, raw potato starch, cytochrome P4502E1, cytochrome P4502A6
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-252
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-252
ID Code:532
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Food Science (until 161231)
Deposited By: Galia Zamaratskaia
Deposited On:23 Apr 2004 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:05

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