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Timothy and red clover as forage for dairy production

in vitro degradation characteristics and chemical composition

Hetta, Mårten (2004). Timothy and red clover as forage for dairy production. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Umeå : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Agraria, 1401-6249 ; 460
ISBN 91-576-6481-8
[Doctoral thesis]

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The aim of this thesis was to describe and compare timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) as forage for dairy cattle on the basis of the chemical composition and the in vitro degradation characteristics. Initially the degradation characteristics determined with an in vitro gas production technique and an in vitro filter bag technique were compared. Both techniques were found to be interesting tools for providing relevant degradation parameters for feed evaluation models. Thereafter the degradation characteristics and nutritive value of forages of timothy and red clover were described with recordings of in vitro gas production and chemical analysis. Analysis of the herbage of red clover and timothy showed that red clover contained lower concentrations of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and had lower degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDFD) on all harvest occasions. Red clover had on average a higher maximal fractional degradation rate (FDRmax) of the whole forage compared to timothy. The FDRmax for the NDF in red clover was not different from that in timothy. In timothy the components soluble in neutral detergent solution had a higher FDRmax compared to those in red clover. Timothy and red clover were conserved as direct cut silages with the addition of conservation additives. It was found that timothy and red clover herbage responded differently to the silage additives. Silages treated with additives had a shorter time until half of the gas was produced, as well as a shorter time until the maximal fractional degradation rate was reached, indicating a faster in vitro degradation compared to that of untreated silages. The use of additives improved the NDFD in silage with red clover but not that in the silage of pure timothy. The relationships between the feed characteristics and the relative silage intake in dairy cows were evaluated. It was found that the preparation technique for silage samples was important and that wet silage samples had a higher gas production and different kinetics compared to dried samples. It was concluded that chemical analysis in combination with the in vitro gas production technique can be a cost-efficient tool for relative prediction of silage intake based on feed characteristics. The predictions can be used to compose feed rations that will optimize silage intake in relation to milk production and to improve conservation management.

Authors/Creators:Hetta, Mårten
Title:Timothy and red clover as forage for dairy production
Subtitle:in vitro degradation characteristics and chemical composition
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Agraria
Year of publishing :May 2004
Number of Pages:42
ALLI. Hetta, M., Nordheim, H., Gustavsson, A-M. & Martinsson, K. 2004. Comparison of in vitro degradation of temperate forages described with the gas production and filter bag techniques. Submitted for publication. II. Hetta, M., Gustavsson, A.-M., Cone, J.W. & Martinsson, K. 2004. In vitro degradation characteristics of timothy and red clover at different harvest times. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Sect. A, 54, 20-29. III. Hetta, M., Cone, J.W., Gustavsson, A.-M. & Martinsson, K. 2003. The effect of additives in silages of pure timothy and timothy mixed with red clover on chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics. Grass and Forage Science 58, 249-257. IV. Hetta, M., Cone, J.W., Bernes, G., Gustavsson, A.-M. & Martinsson, K. 2004. Voluntary intake of silages depending on chemical composition and in vitro degradation characteristics. Submitted for publication.
Place of Publication:Umeå
ISBN for printed version:91-576-6481-8
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:Q Food science > Q52 Feed processing and preservation
Q Food science > Q54 Feed composition
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:silage, phleum pratense, trifolium pratense, in vitro, biodegradability, feeds, nutritive value
Keywords:timothy, red clover, in vitro gas production, artificial filter bag technique, degradation characteristics, fermentation products, silage intake
Permanent URL:
ID Code:536
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden
(VH) > Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden
Deposited By: Mårten Hetta
Deposited On:03 May 2004 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:05

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