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Starch branching enzymes and their genes in Sorghum

Mutisya, Joel (2004). Starch branching enzymes and their genes in Sorghum. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae. Agraria, 1401-6249 ; 479
ISBN 91-576-6768-3
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Starch is an important raw material both for food and non-food purposes. It is synthesized and stored in source and sink tissues in plants. The starch deposited in amyloplasts of storage tissues possesses several physico-chemical properties, which makes it desirable for diverse applications. For industrial applications, starches high in either amylose or amylopectin are preferred in order to minimize chemical modification. The main purpose in our research is to understand starch synthesis in the sorghum endosperm, and use this information to generate transgenic sorghum with novel starches for both human diet and industrial application. In starch biosynthesis, the activity and expression profile of starch branching enzymes is important in determining both the yield and proportion of amylose and amylopectin. This thesis describes some of the characteristics of starch branching enzymes and their genes in sorghum. The genes encoding two SBE isoforms, SBEIIa and SBEIIb, were cloned and characterised. Comparison of the SBEIIb amino acid sequence with sequences from related species revealed a conserved core stretch of amino acids believed to harbor the catalytic site of the enzyme. Spatial expression patterns showed that the activity of sorghum sbeI and sbeIIb are seed-specific, while sorghum sbeIIa is expressed in endosperm, embryonic and vegetative tissues. We demonstrated that endosperm-specific expression of barley sbeIIb is governed by the second intron of the barley sbeIIb gene, and that the same second intron can confer endosperm specific expression to both sorghum sbeIIb and barley sbeIIa. This implies that a similar regulation factor in barley, which interacts with sequences within the intron, is also present in sorghum. Deletion mutagenesis of the sorghum sbeIIb promoter showed that a, 1-kb fragment 5´ of the transcriptional start site constitutes the minimal promoter capable of high level expression. Diurnal expression profiles suggested that an endogenous oscillator in the endosperm controls expression of sbeI, sbIIa and sbeIIb.

Authors/Creators:Mutisya, Joel
Title:Starch branching enzymes and their genes in Sorghum
Year of publishing :October 2004
Volume:479
Number of Pages:31
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
ALLI. Mutisya, J., Sathish, P., Sun, C., Andersson, L., Ahlandsberg, S., Baguma, Y., Palmqvist, S., Odhiambo, B., Åman, P. & Jansson, C. 2003. Starch branching enzymes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and barley (Hordeum vulgare): Comparative analysis of enzyme structure and gene expression. Journal of Plant Physiology 160, 921-930. II. Mutisya, J., Sun, C., Palmqvist, S., Baguma, Y., Odhiambo, B. & Jansson, C. Transcriptional regulation of the sbeIIb genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and barley (Hordeum vulgare): Importance of the barley sbeIIb second intron. Submitted. III. Mutisya, J., Sun, C., Venkateshaiah, L., Palmqvist, S., Baguma, Y., Odhiambo, B. & Jansson, C. Endogenous oscillation of sbe expression in sorghum endosperm. Submitted. IV. Mutisya, J., Sun, C., Boren, M., Baguma, Y., Odhiambo, B. & Jansson, C. Comparative analysis of starch synthesis in white and brown sorghum: An initial characterization. Manuscript.
Place of Publication:Uppsala
ISBN for printed version:91-576-6768-3
ISSN:1401-6249
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:F Plant production > F30 Plant genetics and breeding
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:amylose, amylopectin, gene expression, sorghum, endosperm, transgenic plants, transcription
Keywords:amylose, amylopectin, expression, regulation, second intron, transgenic sorghum
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-319
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-319
ID Code:653
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics (until 131231)
Deposited By: Staff Epsilon
Deposited On:05 Oct 2004 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:06

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