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Wood formation and transcript analysis with focus on tension wood and ethylene biology

Andersson Gunnerås, Sara (2005). Wood formation and transcript analysis with focus on tension wood and ethylene biology. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Umeå : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2005:15
ISBN 91-576-7014-5
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

New molecular tools were used to study wood formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x tremuloides Michx.), with a focus on tension wood (TW) formation. TW is a gravitational response, and forms on the upper side of the stem to maintain an optimal position. TW formation is associated with an increased growth rate, modified fiber cell walls with low lignin, and high cellulose content. The plant hormone ethylene is induced during TW formation, but mechanisms regulating its level in wood forming tissues, and its exact function in wood development, are not well known. Several ethylene related transcripts were found in expression sequence tags (EST) libraries from wood forming tissues. A 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) was cloned, observed to be expressed in developing xylem, and highly up-regulated exclusively in (upper side) TW forming tissues. Simultaneously, the precursor of ethylene, ACC, accumulated in opposite (lower) wood. This finding demonstrated that ACO expression, rather than ACC availability, regulated ethylene production in this system. Further, an ACC deaminase (ACD) that metabolizes ACC was identified from EST libraries. Previously thought to be specific to microorganisms, this is the first report of an ACD endogenous to plants. The poplar ACD was mainly expressed in the cambial zone and phloem, complementing the expression of ACO in the xylem, which suggests that ethylene synthesis within the stem, is tightly controlled. A poplar microarray was used to study gene regulation in TW. The analysis was focused on genes related to the flux of carbohydrates to cell wall components, plant hormones and a group of highly up-regulated fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins. The study demonstrates several genes important for the flux of carbohydrates from lignin and hemicelluloses towards cellulose production. Microarray analysis was also used to study the effect of gene expression in transgenic trees down-regulated in lignin biosynthesis genes, either the enzyme caffeic acid O-methyl transferase or cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Interestingly, several of the genes uniquely affected by CAD down-regulation where related the plant clock function. This finding appears to be caused by a secondary event, due to the red coloration of the xylem observed in the transgenic lines.

Authors/Creators:Andersson Gunnerås, Sara
Title:Wood formation and transcript analysis with focus on tension wood and ethylene biology
Year of publishing :March 2005
Volume:2005:15
Number of Pages:46
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
ALLI. Andersson Gunnerås, S., Hellgren J.M., Björklund, S., Regan, S., Moritz, T. and Sundberg, B. Asymmetric expression of a poplar ACC oxidase controls ethylene production during gravitational induction of tension wood. Plant Journal 2003 May; 34 (3): 339-49. II. McDonnell, L., Andersson Gunnerås, S., Sundberg, B., Glick, B., Willmore, W. and Regan, S. Identification of a functional plant-encoded ACC deaminase - A mechanism to regulate ethylene levels. Manuscript. III. Andersson Gunnerås, S., Mellerowicz, E.J., Ohmiya, Y., Nilsson, P., Henrissat, B., Love, J., Moritz, T. and Sundberg, B. Making cellulose enriched gelatinous fibers in poplar: global analysis of transcripts and metabolites identifies biochemical and developmental regulators in secondary wall biosynthesis. Manuscript IV. Holst Christensen, J., Storme, V., Andersson Gunnerås, S., Sundberg, B. and Boerjan, W. Dissection of the transcriptional/biochemical response to downregulation of the lignin biosynthesis gene cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in poplar. Manuscript
Place of Publication:Umeå
ISBN for printed version:91-576-7014-5
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:F Plant production > F62 Plant physiology - Growth and development
Subjects:Not in use, please see Agris categories
Agrovoc terms:populus tremula, populus tremuloides, hybrids, lignification, reaction wood, ethylene, gene expression
Keywords:Populus, wood formation, tension wood, ethylene, ACC, lignin, CAZY, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins, microarray
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-586
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-586
ID Code:789
Department:(S) > Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology
Deposited By: Sara Andersson Gunnerås
Deposited On:23 Mar 2005 00:00
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:07

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