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Säkra häststall - hästens sparkbelastning på inredning och byggnadskonstruktioner

Wachenfelt, Hans von and Nilsson, Christer and Ventorp, Michael (2011). Säkra häststall - hästens sparkbelastning på inredning och byggnadskonstruktioner. Alnarp: (LTJ, LTV) > Rural Buildings and Animal Husbandry (until 121231), Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet. Landskap trädgård jordbruk : rapportserie ; 2011:20
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Abstract

Hästar kan skada sig på inredning och boxmellanväggar (exempelvis galler) och riskerna för såväl djur som människa kan också vara stora då hästen ska frias från att ha fastnat. Rapporten redovisar en studie vars syfte var att betydligt minska risken för skador på och olyckor med häst orsakade av hästsparkar. Oavsett hållning av hästar i enhästboxar eller i grupp i lösdrift måste skaderisken för såväl häst som skötare minimeras genom en korrekt hållfasthetsdimensionering och lämpligt val av byggnadsmaterial och utformning.

Mätningar utfördes av de krafter som en häst kan åstadkomma vid sparkar mot inredningen. Detta gjordes med hjälp av en ”mätvägg”, försedd med lastgivare och datoriserat mätsystem, som placerades framför en mellanvägg i ett antal hästboxar. I vissa fall provocerades hästarna genom att variera häst i grannbox, utfodringstidpunkt, utsläpp till rasthagar efter andra hästar etc. Från ägarna insamlades uppgifter om hästarna med avseende på ålder, kön, ras, vikt, mankhöjd, mätplats, mätperiod och om hästen varit oprovocerad eller provocerad vid mättillfället.

Registreringen av hästsparkar utfördes under totalt 6,5 månader och ca 500 registrerade mätvärden erhölls. De flesta stötarna, ca 90 %, hade ett maximivärde under 1924 N. Den totala stötförloppstiden var kort. För 93 % av stötarna var varaktigheten mellan 0,001 och 0,05 sekunder. Högsta uppmätta stötkraft, orsakad av en hästspark, uppgick till 8722 N, motsvarande ett impulsvärde på 131 Ns eller ca 300 J anslagsenergi .

Stötarnas fördelning över dygnet visar att dessa sammanföll med dagliga aktiviteter såsom t.ex. utfodring morgon och kväll. Resultaten uppvisade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan maximala stötkraften för provocerad häst jämfört med oprovocerad häst. För att kontrollera mätväggen, och erhålla ett samband mellan stötkrafter registrerade från hästsparkar respektive från en fallhejare i laboratorium, utfördes en mätserie där mätväggen placerades under en fallhejare. Ett samband erhölls mellan fallhejarens teoretiska rörelseenergi och anslagsimpuls och de mätvärden som registreras med hjälp av mätväggen. Detta utnyttjades för kalibrering av mätväggen. Fallhejarmetoden föreslås kunna användas för provning av inredningsdetaljer.

Authors/Creators:Wachenfelt, Hans von and Nilsson, Christer and Ventorp, Michael
Title:Säkra häststall - hästens sparkbelastning på inredning och byggnadskonstruktioner
Alternative abstract:
LanguageAbstract
English

In horse stables fittings and fixtures, e.g. grids, may cause horse injuries and the risk of an accident to animal as well as to man may also be high when releasing the horse after having got stuck. The overall objective of the study was to reduce the risk of injuries and accidents related to horses when kicking. Irrespective of keeping horses in boxes or loose housed in groups the risk of injuries to horse as well as keeper must be minimized by a correct structural design and appropriate choice of building material and shaping.

Loads from horse kicks acting on stable fittings and fixtures were measured involving un-provoked as well as provoked horses. The data acquisition was carried out by using a measuring wall equipped with load cells and a computerized measuring system which was placed in a number of horse boxes. Horses were provoked by changing horse in neighboring box, varying time of feeding, being let out to exercise yard after other horses etc. Data about the horses regarding age, sex, race, weight, withers height, and measuring period were supplied by the horse owners who also informed whether the horse had been provoked or not during the measuring period. Furthermore, information was registered concerning placing of the box in the stable and whether the box had massive walls adjacent to neighboring boxes or they were equipped with bars in the upper part.

Horse kicks were recorded during 6.5 months in total. About 500 actual values were registered. Most of the kicks, about 90%, had a maximum value below 1924 N. Total time of impact was short. 2% of the registered impacts had a duration less than 0.001 s and the majority of the impacts, 93%, had a duration between 0.001 and 0.05 s. The remaining impacts, 5%, had a duration between 0.05 and 0.1 s. The distribution of the impacts over time showed that they coincided with daily activities such as e.g. morning and evening feeding but also other activities during morning time. No significant difference could be observed between maximum impact force caused by provoked and un-provoked horse respectively.

In order to verify the measuring wall and to obtain a relationship between impact forces registered from actual horse kicks and a laboratory drop hammer respectively, a series of measurements were carried out when the wall was placed under the drop hammer. A relationship was obtained between the theoretical impact energy and impact impulse of the drop hammer and values registered by the wall. This relationship was used for calibrating the measuring wall. In the field trials the highest impact force measured was 8722 N corresponding to an impulse of 131 Ns.

Conclusions, advice to stakeholders and need for future studies:
• The results show that the methodology of using the measuring wall is working.
• The measuring wall is able to measure horse kicks against box fittings.
• The characteristics of the measuring wall can be determined by a drop hammer test.
• A direct connection could be obtained between values registered from horse kicks and from drop hammer respectively. Therefore, the drop hammer method can be used for testing of fittings.
• Impacts registered in the field tests were rapid, often shorter than 0.03 s. 90% of the impacts had a maximum value below 1924 N and the highest one was 8722 N.
• The greatest impact, caused by a horse kick, registered in the investigating amounted to 131 Ns impulse corresponding to about 300 J impact energy. Considering the registered values and taking into account a certain safety margin, the impact resistance demand for traditional horse boxes, to be used for maximum 700 kg horses, should be at least 350 J equivalent to 150 Ns caused by a hit of a horse shoe inclining 45°.
• Provoked horses kick harder and more frequently than un-provoked horses. Provocations include daily routines such as feeding and exercising. However, horse kicks appear at any time when awake, implying that more than daily routines influence activity.
• In order to get extensive and more confident statistical data, leading to more accurate design values, measurements extended over several years and with more horses involved should be carried out. Most likely horses are able to kick harder than the horses included in our study.

Series/Journal:Landskap trädgård jordbruk : rapportserie (1654-5427)
Year of publishing :2011
Number:2011:20
Number of Pages:33
Place of Publication:Alnarp
Publisher:Fakulteten för landskapsplanering, trädgårds- och jordbruksvetenskap, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
Associated Programs and Other Stakeholders:SLU/LTJ - Partnership Alnarp
ISBN for printed version:978-91-86373-71-9
ISSN:1654-5427
Language:Swedish
Publication Type:Report
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:L Animal production > L01 Animal husbandry
N Machinery and buildings > N10 Agricultural structures
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 402 Animal and Dairy Science > Animal and Dairy Science.
Keywords:horse, stable, loads, fitting, kick
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-119
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-119
ID Code:8162
Department:(LTJ, LTV) > Rural Buildings and Animal Husbandry (until 121231)
External funders:Swedish Board of Agriculture
Deposited By: Christer Nilsson
Deposited On:08 Jun 2011 06:49
Metadata Last Modified:07 Jan 2016 09:50

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