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Source, occurrence, and fate of pharmaceuticals in natural waters

Daneshvar, Atlasi (2012). Source, occurrence, and fate of pharmaceuticals in natural waters. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2012:67
ISBN 978-91-576-7714-3
[Doctoral thesis]

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The consumption of pharmaceuticals has increased in the last few decades. After usage, pharmaceuticals are excreted via urine and feces and transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) where they are subjected to treatment processes, and finally discharged into rivers. In order to assess aquatic risk associated with short- and long-term exposure to pharmaceuticals, temporal-spatial variability in the concentrations should be monitored in different water compartments. In this thesis, occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and other organic pollutants were studied in Swedish and Canadian rivers and WWTPs, and the major sources of contaminations were identified.

The ranges of mean concentrations of the pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), hormones, and pesticides were 2.4-13755 ng L-1 and 0.5-112 ng L-1 in treated wastewaters and rivers, respectively. WWTPs and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) were identified as major sources of PPCPs in rivers. However, a large gathering of people at a river shore could temporarily contribute to a high input of pharmaceuticals. A temporal study of mass flows and corresponding removal efficiencies (REs) of WWTP-derived pharmaceuticals showed winter accumulations for most of the compounds. This might reflect high water flow rates and negligible rates of bio- and phototransformation in this season. REs of beta-blockers were season-dependent, with the highest removal in the summer and fall. This was due to biotransformation, indicated by high water temperature and chlorophyll a mass flows during those seasons. Yearly median REs of nutrients were low compared to pharmaceuticals. Yet, REs of atenolol and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) were related and had similar seasonal trends. Carbamazepine REs were the lowest among the pharmaceuticals. The latter combined with the persistence of carbamazepine in WWTPs and a lake showed its potential as an indicator of cumulative contamination. A correlation between caffeine concentrations and fecal coliforms in rivers confirmed caffeine as an indicator of recent urban fecal contamination. A high caffeine/carbamazepine ratio might be indicative of raw sewage discharge in a river, justified by higher concentrations of caffeine than carbamazepine in raw sewage and negligible removal of carbamazepine in WWTPs. The outcomes of the thesis show that source characteristics, water flow rates, and environmental conditions are essential factors that control detection frequency, concentrations and associated mass flows, and the fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. Also, pharmaceuticals can be used as indicators of recent and cumulative fecal contamination in drinking water sources.

Authors/Creators:Daneshvar, Atlasi
Title:Source, occurrence, and fate of pharmaceuticals in natural waters
Series Name/Journal:Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae
Year of publishing :27 September 2012
Number of Pages:74
I.Daneshvar, A., Svanfelt, J., Kronberg, L., Weyhenmeyer, G. A. (2010). Winter accumulation of acidic pharmaceuticals in a Swedish river. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 17(4), 908-916.
II.Daneshvar, A., Svanfelt, J., Kronberg, L., Prévost, M., Weyhenmeyer, G. A. (2010). Seasonal variations in the occurrence and fate of basic and neutral pharmaceuticals in a Swedish river-lake system. Chemosphere 80(3), 301-309.
III.Daneshvar, A., Svanfelt, J., Kronberg, L., Weyhenmeyer, G. A. (2012). Neglected sources of pharmaceuticals in river water-footprints of a Reggae festival. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 14(2), 596-603.
IV.Daneshvar, A., Aboulfadl, K., Viglino, L., Broséus, R., Sauvé, S., Madoux- Humery, A. S., Weyhenmeyer, G. A., Prévost, M. (2012). Evaluating pharmaceuticals and caffeine as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water sources of the Greater Montreal region. Chemosphere 88(1), 131-139.
V.Daneshvar, A., Prévost, M., Fick, J., Kronberg, L., Weyhenmeyer, G. A. Natural waters remove pharmaceuticals faster than nutrients. (Manuscript).
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-7714-3
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:T Pollution > T01 Pollution
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 104 Chemical Sciences > Analytical Chemistry
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 1 Natural sciences > 105 Earth and Related Environmental Sciences > Environmental Sciences (social aspects to be 507)
(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 2 Engineering and Technology > 201 Civil Engineering > Water Engineering
Agrovoc terms:drugs, hormones, residues, pollutants, surface water, water pollution, contamination, water analysis, analytical methods, indicators, sweden, canada
Keywords:pharmaceutical, source water, treated wastewater, occurrence, fate, indicator
Permanent URL:
ID Code:9100
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment
External funders:FORMAS
Deposited By: Atlasi Daneshvar
Deposited On:28 Sep 2012 09:27
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:52

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