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Rhizobacteria associated to Vitis vinifera and their effect on the control of Xiphinema index, Meloidogyne ethiopica and Vitis growth

Aballay, Erwin (2012). Rhizobacteria associated to Vitis vinifera and their effect on the control of Xiphinema index, Meloidogyne ethiopica and Vitis growth. Diss. (sammanfattning/summary) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, 1652-6880 ; 2012:78
ISBN 978-91-576-7725-9
[Doctoral thesis]

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Abstract

Plant-parasitic nematodes are one of the most important pests affecting the growth of vineyards due to the destruction of new roots. Several species are associated with this problem, the most important being the ectoparasite Xiphinema index and the endoparasite Meloidogyne ethiopica. The search for new pest and disease control methods based on bioantagonist microorganisms is an important aspect of modern agriculture and the development of tools based on the use of rhizobacteria is becoming a widely evaluated alternative.

The present study on suppressive soils started with a survey undertaken in productive Chilean vineyards to explore the younger roots of grapevines and identify the presence of rhizobacteria. More than 1800 soils were surveyed and a set of 11 vineyards were selected and considered suitable for bacteria isolation, as they showed low densities of plant-parasitic nematodes.

A total of 400 bacterial isolates in 25 genera were obtained using tryptic soy broth agar and identified with fatty acid profiling. Two of the most frequently isolated species were Pseudomonas putida (35.1%) and P. fluorescens (6.1%). The effect of these isolates on the parasitism and reproduction of X. index was assessed through assays using potted vine plants (cv. Thompson Seedless) and a bacterial suspension containing 1×106 CFU/mL. Some isolates from Bacillus megaterium, B. brevis, B. mycoides, B. sphaericus, B. thuringiensis, Pseudomonas corrugata, P. putida, P. alcaligenes, P. savastanoi, P. fluorescens, P. pseudoalcaligenes, P. viridiflava, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia plymuthica, Cytophaga johnsonae, Rahnella aquatilis, Stenotrophomonas sp., Variovorax paradoxus and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens reduced root damage and suppressed populations.

Isolates of B. brevis, Comamonas acidovorans, B. megaterium, Pantoea agglomerans and P. savastanoi increased plant growth or root weight, but did not control nematodes.

Most of the culture filtrates obtained from isolates from four vineyards were effective in killing X. index and decreasing egg hatching, which was not related to damage or population control. It was estimated that 89, 32 and 16% of the isolates were effective against X. index under supernatant conditions, in potted plants growing in sterile substrate and in potted plants growing in field soil, respectively.

Sixteen bacterial isolates previously assessed were also evaluated on M. ethiopica in vine cv. Chardonnay. Seven isolates (Serratia marcescens, C. acidovorans, P. agglomerans, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, B. mycoides, Alcaligenes piechaudii and S. plymuthica) decreased damage or reproduction, showing that different species of nematodes can respond differently to a particular isolate.

Authors/Creators:Aballay, Erwin
Title:Rhizobacteria associated to Vitis vinifera and their effect on the control of Xiphinema index, Meloidogyne ethiopica and Vitis growth
Alternative abstract:
LanguageAbstract
Spanish

Los nematodos fitoparásitos son uno de las plagas más importantes que afectan el desarrollo de los viñedos debido a la destrucción de las raicillas. Varias especies de nematodos se asocian con este problema, entre ellas las mas importantes son el ectoparásito Xiphinema index y el endoparásito Meloidogyne ethiopica. La necesidad de contar con nuevas herramientas para su control es un elemento primordial en la agricultura moderna, por lo que el uso de rizobacterias es una alternativa potencialmente muy útil.

El presente estudio se inicio con la búsqueda de suelos supresivos a nematodos asociados a viñedos productivos en Chile con el objeto de analizar la presencia de rizobacterias asociadas a las raíces nuevas en desarrollo. Se analizaron más de 1800 muestras de suelo y finalmente se escogieron 11 viñedos con baja presencia de nematodos fitoparásitos para el aislamiento y selección de rizobacterias.

Finalmente se obtuvo alrededor de 400 aislados, dentro de 25 géneros, mediante el uso de caldo tríptico de soya en agar e identificados mediante el análisis de ácidos grasos. Dos de las especies aisladas en forma más frecuente fueron Pseudomonas putida (35.1%) y P. fluorescens (6.1%). Se evaluó el efecto de estos aislados sobre el parasitismo y reproducción de X. index mediante ensayos con plantas en macetas de la variedad Thompson Seedless y suspensiones bacterianas con una densidad de 1×106 UFC/mL. Algunos aislados de Bacillus megaterium, B. brevis, B. mycoides, B. sphaericus, B. thuringiensis, Pseudomonas corrugata, P. putida, P. alcaligenes, P. savastanoi, P. fluorescens, P. pseudoalcaligenes, P. viridiflava, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia plymuthica, Cytophaga johnsonae, Rahnella aquatilis, Stenotrophomonas sp., Variovorax paradoxus y Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens redujeron el daño a las raíces y disminuyeron las poblaciones de nematodos.

Aislamientos de B. brevis, Comamonas acidovorans, B. megaterium, Pantoea agglomerans y P. savastanoi aumentaron el desarrollo de las plantas o el peso de las raíces, pero no tuvieron incidencia en el control de nematodos.

La mayoría de los filtrados bacterianos obtenidos desde los aislamientos de las cuatro primeras viñas con las que se trabajó fueron eficaces en la mortalidad de X index, lo cual sin embargo no estuvo directamente relacionado con la presencia de daños a las raíces o control de los nematodos. Se estima que 89, 32 y 16% de los aislamientos fueron eficaces en el control de X. index bajo las condiciones de trabajos in vitro al usar los filtrados bacterianos, en plantas en macetas creciendo en sustrato estéril y en plantas en macetas con suelo agrícola, respectivamente.

Dieciséis aislamientos previamente ensayados fueron también evaluados sobre M. ethiopica en plantas de la variedad Chardonnay. Siete de estos aislamientos (Serratia marcescens, C. acidovorans, P. agglomerans, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, B. mycoides, Alcaligenes piechaudii y S. plymuthica) disminuyeron el daño o la reproducción, mostrando que diferentes especies de nematodos se afectan en forma distinta a un aislamiento específico.

Series/Journal:Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae (1652-6880)
Year of publishing :2012
Volume:2012:78
Number of Pages:53
Papers/manuscripts:
NumberReferences
I.Aballay, E., Persson, P. & Mårtensson, A. (2009). Plant-parasitic nematodes in Chilean vineyards. Nematropica 39 (1), 85-97.
II.Aballay, E., Mårtensson, A. & Persson, P. (2011). Screening of rhizosphere bacteria from grapevine for their suppressive effect on Xiphinema index Thorne & Allen on in vitro grape plants. Plant and Soil 347, 313-325.
III.Aballay, E., Prodan, S., Mårtensson, A. & Persson, P. (2012). Assessment of rhizobacteria from grapevine for their suppressive effect on the parasitic nematode Xiphinema index. Crop Protection (in press).
IV.IV Aballay, E., Ordenes, P., Mårtensson, A. & Persson, P. (2012). Effects of rhizobacteria on parasitism by Meloidogyne ethiopica on grapevines. European Journal of Plant Pathology (on line). DOI 10.1007/s10658-012-0073-7
Place of Publication:Uppsala
Publisher:Dept. of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Associated Programs and Other Stakeholders:SLU - Agricultural Sciences for Global Development > Efficiency in farming systems
ISBN for printed version:978-91-576-7725-9
ISSN:1652-6880
Language:English
Publication Type:Doctoral thesis
Full Text Status:Public
Agris subject categories.:F Plant production > F01 Crop husbandry
H Protection of plants and stored products > H10 Pests of plants
Subjects:(A) Swedish standard research categories 2011 > 4 Agricultural Sciences > 401 Agricultural, Forestry and Fisheries > Agricultural Science
Agrovoc terms:vitis vinifera, xiphinema index, meloidogyne, plant nematodes, nematode control, biological control, rhizobacteria, biological control agents, growth, grapevine, viticulture, chile
Keywords:Rhizobacteria, Plant-parasitic nematodes, Biological Control
URN:NBN:urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-638
Permanent URL:
http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:slu:epsilon-e-638
ID Code:9102
Department:(NL, NJ) > Dept. of Crop Production Ecology
External funders:Axel and Margaret Ax:son Johnson Foundation
Deposited By: Mr. Erwin Aballay
Deposited On:02 Oct 2012 10:22
Metadata Last Modified:02 Dec 2014 10:52

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